C형 간염 HEPATITIS C
What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent disease because people can get infected and not know it. Some people who get infected with Hepatitis C are able to clear, or get rid of the virus, but most people who get infected develop a chronic, or lifelong, infection. Over time, chronic Hepatitis C can cause serious health problems including liver damage, liver failure, and even liver cancer. How is Hepatitis C spread? Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. This can happen through different ways including: Injection drug use. Most people become infected with Hepatitis C by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. It is possible to have gotten Hepatitis C from injecting drugs, even if it was just once or many years ago. Blood transfusions and organ transplants. Before widespread screening of the blood supply began in 1992, Hepatitis C was spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants. Outbreaks. While uncommon, poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities and residential care facilities. While rare, spreading Hepatitis C through sex is possible. Having a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or HIV, sex with multiple partners, or rough sex appears to increase a person’s risk for Hepatitis C. Hepatitis C can also be spread when getting tattoos and body piercings in informal settings or with non-sterile instruments. Some people don’t know how or when they got infected.
Who should get tested for Hepatitis C? • Anyone who has injected drugs, even just once or many years ago • Anyone with certain medical conditions, such as chronic liver disease and HIV or AIDS • Anyone who has received donated blood or organs before 1992 • Anyone born from 1945 through 1965 • Anyone with abnormal liver tests or liver disease • Health and safety workers who have been exposed to blood on the job through a needlestick or injury with a sharp object • Anyone on hemodialysis • Anyone born to a mother with Hepatitis C
Why is it important to get tested for Hepatitis C? • Millions of Americans have Hepatitis C, but most don’t know it. • About 8 in 10 people who get infected with Hepatitis C develop a chronic, or lifelong, infection. • People with Hepatitis C often have no symptoms. Many people can live with an infection for decades without feeling sick. • Hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver cancer and the leading cause of liver transplants. • New treatments are available for Hepatitis C that can get
Following Information From Mayo Clinic
Health officials recommend that anyone at high risk of exposure to HCV get a blood test to screen for hepatitis C infection. People who may want to talk to their doctors about screening for hepatitis C include:
Anyone who has ever injected or inhaled illicit drugs
Anyone who has abnormal liver function test results with no identified cause
Babies born to mothers with hepatitis C
Health care and emergency workers who have been exposed to blood or accidental needle sticks
People with hemophilia who were treated with clotting factors before 1987
People who have ever undergone long-term hemodialysis treatments
People who received blood transfusions or organ transplants before 1992
Sexual partners of anyone diagnosed with hepatitis C infection
People with HIV infection
Anyone born from 1945 to 1965
Anyone who has been in prison
If an initial blood test shows that you have hepatitis C, additional blood tests will:
Measure the quantity of the hepatitis C virus in your blood (viral load)
Identify the genotype of the virus
Tests for liver damage
Doctors typically use one or more of the following tests to assess liver damage in chronic hepatitis C.
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). A noninvasive alternative to a liver biopsy (see below), MRE combines magnetic resonance imaging technology with patterns formed by sound waves bouncing off the liver to create a visual map showing gradients of stiffness throughout the liver. Stiff liver tissue indicates the presence of fibrosis, or scarring of the liver, as a result of chronic hepatitis C.
Transient elastography. Another noninvasive test, transient elastography is a type of ultrasound that transmits vibrations into the liver and measures the speed of their dispersal through liver tissue to estimate its stiffness.
Liver biopsy. Typically done using ultrasound guidance, this test involves inserting a thin needle through the abdominal wall to remove a small sample of liver tissue for laboratory testing.
Transient elastography A member of the care team performs transient elastography — a painless alternative to liver biopsy — to assess liver damage.
Hepatitis C infection is treated with antiviral medications intended to clear the virus from your body. The goal of treatment is to have no hepatitis C virus detected in your body at least 12 weeks after you complete treatment.
Researchers have recently made significant advances in treatment for hepatitis C using new, “direct-acting” anti-viral medications, sometimes in combination with existing ones. As a result, people experience better outcomes, fewer side effects and shorter treatment times — some as short as eight weeks. The choice of medications and length of treatment depend on the hepatitis C genotype, presence of existing liver damage, other medical conditions and prior treatments.
Due to the pace of research, recommendations for medications and treatment regimens are changing rapidly. It is therefore best to discuss your treatment options with a specialist.
Throughout treatment your care team will monitor your response to medications.
If you have developed serious complications from chronic hepatitis C infection, liver transplantation may be an option. During liver transplantation, the surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver. Most transplanted livers come from deceased donors, though a small number come from living donors who donate a portion of their livers.
In most cases, a liver transplant alone doesn’t cure hepatitis C. The infection is likely to return, requiring treatment with antiviral medication to prevent damage to the transplanted liver. Several studies have demonstrated that new, direct-acting antiviral medication regimens are effective at curing post-transplant hepatitis C. Treatment with direct-acting antivirals can also be effective in appropriately selected patients before liver transplantation.
Although there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, your doctor will likely recommend that you receive vaccines against the hepatitis A and B viruses. These are separate viruses that also can cause liver damage and complicate the course of chronic hepatitis C.
Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.
Lifestyle and home remedies
If you receive a diagnosis of hepatitis C, your doctor will likely recommend certain lifestyle changes. These measures will help keep you healthy longer and protect the health of others as well:
Stop drinking alcohol. Alcohol speeds the progression of liver disease.
Avoid medications that may cause liver damage. Review your medications with your doctor, including over-the-counter medications you take as well as herbal preparations and dietary supplements. Your doctor may recommend avoiding certain medications.
Help prevent others from coming in contact with your blood